what is the name of the bird dinosaur

Many of the characteristics of early and modern birds appeared first in theropod dinosaurs. Feathers, wishbones, modified “flapping” forelimbs and hollow bones are found in the coelurosaurs.

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what is the name of the bird dinosaur

Coelurosaurs are the theropod group that includes tyrannosaurs and dromaeosaurs.

Members of the latter category, such as velociraptor and bambiraptor, have a more recent common ancestor with birds. Given who lived first, maybe we should stop thinking of dinosaurs as having behavior similar to birds and instead think of birds as having behavior similar to dinosaurs.

Mei Long, a non-avian coelurosaur from China, had its head “tucked” under its forelimb when its fossilized skeleton was discovered. This position is similar to the “sleeping” position that many contemporary birds adopt. The implication of such behavior reinforces the connection between birds and non-avian dinosaurs.

Examples of bird-like dinosaurs include:

  • Caudipteryx zoui. Fossils from China, Early Cretaceous, 130–122 million years ago. Classification: Theropoda; Oviraptorosauria. The name Caudipteryx, which means “tail feather,” alludes to the tail plume that this non-avian dinosaur may have spread out to exhibit. Longer feathers covered its arms and tail, while short, primitive feathers covered the rest of its body.
  • Sinosauropteryx prima. Fossils from China, Early Cretaceous, 130–122 million years ago. Classification: Theropoda; Compsognathidae. The finding of Sinosauropteryx prima in 1996 was among the century’s most significant fossil discoveries. As the first non-avian dinosaur discovered with feather-like features, it added to the body of evidence supporting the theory that dinosaurs and birds are related. Melanosomes, which are minuscule pigment packages found in cells, indicate that the bird’s feathers were once ginger in color, with white and ginger stripes on its tail. Its name means ‘first Chinese reptilian wing’.
  • Sinornithosaurus millenii. Fossils from China, Early Cretaceous, 130-122 million years ago. Classification: Theropoda; Dromaeosauridae. Sinornithosaurus may have been adapted for leaping. Its stiff tail served as a counterbalance, enabling precise aim and releasing the strong foot claws. It’s hard to tell if this was helpful for jumping between tree branches or attacking prey. Sinornithosaurus was one of the first dinosaurs discovered with feathers.

what is the name of the bird dinosaur

Archaeopteryx lithographica fossil cast. Archaeopteryx, the first fossil evidence connecting birds and dinosaurs, was found in the 1860s. Its skeleton resembled a small non-avian dinosaur, and it had feathers similar to those of modern birds. It is not thought to be the common ancestor of all birds, despite being the oldest and most primitive bird that has ever been discovered.

Finding dinosaurs with feathers in the fossil record that predate the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx (150 million years ago), has proven difficult, despite the general consensus that a small group of theropod dinosaurs gave rise to birds. That was until Anchiornis huxleyi was announced in 2009. This species, which is native to China, is between 161 and 151 million years old, and it has feathers on all four of its limbs. Not long after, Haplocheirus sollers, a magnificent new feathered dinosaur from China that is estimated to be 160 million years old, was also announced. Although it was once believed that alvarezsauriod dinosaurs were flightless birds, Haplocheirus lacks the bird-like characteristics of later alvarezsauriods, such as fused wrist bones and a backward-facing pubis.

Numerous physical traits are shared by coelurosaur dinosaurs, modern birds, and early birds:

  • feathers
  • hollow and thin-walled bones
  • wishbone
  • redesigned forelimb and shoulder to allow hands to fold up against the lower arm
  • modified wrist (semilunate carpal).

what is the name of the bird dinosaur

Drawing of Archaeopteryx lithographica derived from the reconstruction of fossilized skeletons found in Germany Late Jurassic, 155-150 million years ago.

History of discovery editMain article:

Twelve Archaeopteryx body fossil specimens have been discovered over time. Every fossil was found in the centuries-old limestone deposits near Solnhofen, Germany. Sediments from the Solnhofen Limestone formation and associated units are extracted in these quarries. [14][15] The single feather.

The first item found was a single feather, which Hermann von Meyer described in 1861 after it was discovered in 1860 or 1861. [16] It is presently housed at Berlin’s Natural History Museum. There were hints that it might not have come from the same animal as the body fossils, even though it was the original holotype. [9] It was reported in 2019 that laser imaging had revealed the quill’s structure, which had been hidden for a while after the feather was described. The feather’s morphology was found to be inconsistent with all other known Archaeopteryx feathers, indicating that it originated from a different dinosaur. [10] In 2020, this conclusion was contested as implausible; morphology revealed that the feather was most likely an upper major primary covert feather. [11].

The first skeleton was discovered in 1861 close to Langenaltheim, Germany, and is known as the London Specimen (BMNH 37001)[17]. It is possible that Karl Häberlein, a local physician, received it in exchange for medical services. After that, he sold it to the Natural History Museum in London for £700, or about £83,000 in 2020[18]. [14] Richard Owen named it Archaeopteryx macrura in 1863 despite the fact that it was missing the majority of its head and neck, raising the possibility that it was a different species from the feather. Charles Darwin explained in the later fourth edition of On the Origin of Species[19] how some writers had claimed “that the entire class of birds came suddenly into existence during the eocene period; but now we know, on the authority of Professor Owen, that a bird certainly lived during the deposition of the upper greensand; and still more recently, that strange bird, the Archaeopteryx, has been discovered in the oolitic slates of Solnhofen.” The Archaeopteryx is a strange bird with a long tail that resembles a lizard, two feathers on each joint, and wings equipped with two free claws. There is scarcely a more compelling example of how little we currently know about the world’s past inhabitants than this recent discovery. “[20].

The Greek word archa?os (???????) means ancient, primeval. The word “ptéryx” originally meant “wing,” but it can also mean “feather.” Meyer suggested this in his description. He first described a single feather that resembled a wing feather from a modern bird, but then he described the London specimen as a “Skelett eines mit ähnlichen Federn bedeckten Tieres” (literally, “skeleton of an animal covered in similar feathers”) after learning about it and seeing a rough sketch of it. The German word “Schwinge,” which does not always refer to a wing used for flying, clarifies this ambiguity. German academics preferred to translate Archaeopteryx into Urschwinge in the late nineteenth century. In English, ancient pinion offers a rough approximation to this. [citation needed].

Since then, twelve specimens have been recovered:

Farmer Jakob Niemeyer found the Berlin Specimen (HMN 1880/81) in 1874 or 1875 on the Blumenberg near Eichstätt, Germany. In 1876, he sold this priceless fossil to Johann Dörr, the innkeeper, so that he could purchase a cow. Ernst Otto Häberlein, the son of K. Häberlein. Listed for sale from 1877 to 1881, with possible purchasers including O C. Marsh of Yale University’s Peabody Museum, it was ultimately purchased by Berlin’s Natural History Museum for 20,000 Goldmark, where it is currently on display. Ernst Werner von Siemens, the man behind the company that bears his name, provided funding for the deal. [14] Wilhelm Dames described it in 1884; it is the most complete specimen and the first to have a complete head. Dames identified it as a new species in 1897. siemensii; though often considered a synonym of A. According to multiple studies conducted in the 21st century, lithographica—which includes the specimens from Berlin, Munich, and Thermopolis—is a distinct species. [21][22] Cast of the Maxberg Specimen.

The Maxberg Specimen (S5), which consists of a torso, was found in 1956 close to Langenaltheim. Professor Florian Heller became aware of it in 1958 and wrote a description of it in 1959. The specimen’s head and tail are missing, but the majority of its skeleton is still present. It was once on display at the Maxberg Museum in Solnhofen, but it isn’t there anymore. Eduard Opitsch was the owner, and he lent it to the museum until 1974. It was found that the specimen had vanished after his death in 1991 and might have been taken or sold. [23].

The Teylers Specimen, also known as the Haarlem Specimen (TM 6428/29), was found in the vicinity of Riedenburg, Germany, in 1855. Meyer identified it as a Pterodactylus crassipes in 1857. John Ostrom reclassified it in 1970, and it’s presently on display at the Teylers Museum in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Despite being the first specimen discovered, it was initially misclassified. It is also one of the specimens that is least complete, mostly made up of ribs, isolated cervical vertebrae, and limb bones. It was recognized as a distinct genus Ostromia in 2017 and is thought to be more closely related to the Chinese species Anchiornis. [24] Eichstätt Specimen, once considered a distinct genus,.

In the vicinity of Workerszell, Germany, the Eichstätt Specimen (JM 2257) was found in 1951, and Peter Wellnhofer described it in 1974. It is the smallest specimen that is currently known to exist and has the second-best head. It is housed at the Jura Museum in Eichstätt, Germany. It might be a different species (A) or genus (Jurapteryx recurva). recurva). [25].

The Solnhofen Specimen (unnumbered specimen) was found in the vicinity of Eichstätt, Germany, in the 1970s. Wellnhofer described it in 1988. It was originally identified as Compsognathus by an amateur collector, the same mayor Friedrich Müller, after whom the museum is named. It is currently housed at the Bürgermeister-Müller-Museum in Solnhofen. It might be a member of the distinct genus and species, Wellnhoferia grandis, and is the largest specimen currently known. Only parts of the head, backbone, neck, and tail are missing. [26].

The Solenhofer-Aktien-Verein Specimen, also known as the Munich Specimen (BSP 1999 I 50), was found on August 3, 1992, close to Langenaltheim. Wellnhofer described it in 1993. It was sold in 1999 for one and is now housed at the Paläontologisches Museum München in Munich. 9 million Deutschmark. What was first thought to be a bony sternum turned out to be a component of the coracoid [27], although there may have also been a cartilaginous sternum. Only the front of its face is missing. It served as the foundation for a unique species, A bavarica,[28] but more recent studies suggest it belongs to A. siemensii. [22] Daiting Specimen, the.

1990 saw the discovery of an eighth, fragmentary specimen at Daiting, Spain, in the younger Mörnsheim Formation. Consequently, it is referred to as the Daiting Specimen, and until 1996, it was only known from a cast that was briefly displayed at the Naturkundemuseum in Bamberg. The original was purchased by palaeontologist Raimund Albertsdörfer in 2009. [29] In October 2009, it debuted alongside six other authentic fossils of Archaeopteryx at the Munich Mineral Show. [30] Kundrat et al. subsequently named the Daiting Specimen Archaeopteryx albersdoerferi. (2018). [31][32] Following an extended stay in an exclusive private collection, it was relocated to the Museum of Evolution at Knuthenborg Safaripark (Denmark) in 2022, where it has remained on exhibit and accessible to researchers ever since. [33][34] Bürgermeister-Müller (“chicken wing”) Specimen.

Another fragmentary fossil was found in 2000. It is known as the Bürgermeister-Müller Specimen because it is in private hands and has been on loan to the Bürgermeister-Müller Museum in Solnhofen since 2004. The museum refers to it as the “Exemplar of the families Ottman The fragment is referred to as “chicken wing” because it is thought to be the remnants of a single Archaeopteryx wing. [35] Details of the Wyoming Dinosaur Center Archaeopteryx (WDC-CSG-100).

The Thermopolis Specimen (WDC CSG 100), which had been kept in private collection in Switzerland for a long time, was found in Bavaria and described by Mayr, Pohl, and Peters in 2005. Its head and feet are the best preserved; the majority of the neck and lower jaw have not been preserved. It was donated to the Wyoming Dinosaur Center in Thermopolis, Wyoming. The “Thermopolis” specimen was described as “A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features” in a Science journal article published on December 2, 2005. This indicates that Archaeopteryx did not have a reversed toe, which is a characteristic shared by all birds. This suggests that Archaeopteryx lived a terrestrial or trunk-climbing lifestyle. [36] This has been interpreted as evidence of theropod ancestry. In 1988, Gregory S. Paul reported having discovered evidence of a hyperextensible second toe [37], but other scientists did not confirm or validate this until the description of the Thermopolis specimen. “Up until now, it was believed that the trait was exclusive to the deinonychosaurs, the species’ close relatives.” [15] In 2007, Archaeopteryx siemensii was given the Thermopolis Specimen. [22] The specimen is thought to be the best-preserved and most complete Archaeopteryx remains to date. [22] The eleventh specimen.

2011 saw the announcement of the discovery of the eleventh specimen, which was described in 2014. Although it is one of the more complete specimens, one forelimb and a large portion of the skull are missing. It is not yet known by name and is privately owned. After studying the specimen, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich paleontologists discovered previously unidentified characteristics of the plumage, including feathers on the metatarsus, upper and lower legs, and the only preserved tail tip. [40][41].

In the Schamhaupten quarry, a twelfth specimen was found in 2010 by an amateur collector; however, the discovery was not made public until February 2014. [42] It was scientifically described in 2018. It represents a complete and mostly articulated skeleton with skull. It is the only specimen lacking preserved feathers. It is a little older than the other specimens and comes from the Painten Formation. [43].

Classification edit The Thermopolis Specimen

Archaeopteryx fossils are typically assigned to one or two species today. lithographica and A. siemensii, but their taxonomic history is complicated. Ten names have been published for the handful of specimens. As interpreted today, the name A. lithographica only referred to the single feather described by Meyer. Gavin de Beer came to the conclusion that the London specimen was the holotype in 1954. As a result, Swinton suggested in 1960 that Archaeopteryx lithographica be added to the official list of genera, rendering Griphosaurus and Griphornis obsolete. [72] The ICZN did suppress the multitude of alternative names that were first proposed for the first skeleton specimens, implicitly accepting De Beers viewpoint. This was primarily the result of the bitter dispute between Meyer and his opponent Johann Andreas Wagner, whose Griphosaurus problematicus—problematic riddle-lizard—was a sarcastic jab at Meyers Archaeopteryx. [74] Furthermore, the Commission decided in 1977 that in cases where scientists believed the Haarlem specimen and lithographica represented the same species, the first species name—crissapis—should not be given precedence over lithographica. Meyer had previously classified the specimen as a pterosaur before realizing its true nature. [7][75].

It has been observed that the feather, the earliest known specimen of Archaeopteryx, does not closely match the feathers of Archaeopteryx that are related to flight. Although its size and proportions suggest that it might belong to a smaller species of feathered theropod—of which this feather is the only one that is currently known—it is undoubtedly a flight feather of a modern species. [9] The name Archaeopteryx should then no longer be applied to the skeletons since the feather had been named the type specimen, causing serious nomenclatorial confusion. As a result, in 2007, two groups of scientists petitioned the ICZN to formally designate the London specimen as the new holotype specimen, or neotype, and to make it the type. [76] Following four years of discussion, the ICZN confirmed this suggestion, and on October 3, 2011, the London specimen was named the neotype. [77] The twelfth specimen.

Here is a cladogram that Godefroit et al. published in 2013. [3].









Avebrevicauda (includes modern birds)


What are the bird dinosaurs called?

Birds evolved from a group of meat-eating dinosaurs called theropods. That’s the same group that Tyrannosaurus rex belonged to, although birds evolved from small theropods, not huge ones like T.

What is a dinosaur bird creature?

Archaeopteryx had teeth and a long bony tail, just like other dinos in the theropod family, including Tyrannosaurus rex and Allosaurus. But it had characteristics of modern birds, too, like feathers and a wishbone, or furcula, which aids modern birds’ flight. It also had wings—but with claws on them.

What is the dinosaur like a bird?

Discovered in the 1860s, Archaeopteryx was the first fossil evidence linking birds to dinosaurs. It had feathers like modern birds and a skeleton with features like a small non-avian dinosaur.