can humans get trichomoniasis from birds

Trichomoniasis is contagious disease in birds, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. It is transmitted through direct contact and therefore in birds, it can spread easily. Infection with this species of Thrichomona is exclusive to birds and cannot affect humans.

Trichomoniasis is one of the oldest known wildlife diseases and it is also known as ‘frounce’ when seen in birds of prey and as ‘canker’ when seen in pigeons and doves.

The implications of zoonotic trichomonads for human health

Current disease dynamic models suggest that a number of traits, such as a wide host range, genetic variability, the presence of genotypes better adapted to human parasitism, and altered pathogenic potential, are typically linked to the zoonotic emergence of parasitic diseases in humans [50]. Though the disease’s source is still the animal reservoir, emerging zoonoses are thought to manifest through a variety of stages. For instance, some emerge as animal “parasitoses” that are newly transmissible to humans 50, 51. In other instances, parasites have the capacity to transcend species boundaries, alter their host specificity, and develop a sustained human-to-human transmission cycle 50, 52, 53. The multi-host ecology and intricate dynamics of zoonotic infections must be taken into account in order to explain the nonlinear evolution of these emerging parasitoses [54]. These models, along with the clinical and molecular data previously reviewed, suggest that multiple trichomonads are at distinct stages of zoonotic emergence. These findings highlight significant concerns about the possible expansion of the trichomonad pathogenic spectrum in humans and imply that these parasites may be more medically significant than previously believed due to their connections to other illnesses.

Historically, because trichomonads only occur in specific sites and hosts, they have not been regarded as emerging infections. However, the fact that trichomonads are found in a wide range of clinical disorders implies that they might be opportunistic in nature, multiplying when local conditions are favorable. For instance, other pulmonary conditions like cystic fibrosis may be among the illnesses in which trichomonads are discovered to be co-infecting agents in respiratory infections, rather than just PcP and ARDS-associated infections 31, 32. Overall, it appears that our current understanding of pulmonary trichomoniasis may only be the “tip of the iceberg” due to the high prevalence of pulmonary diseases worldwide [55] and the higher burden of zoonotic diseases and lung conditions among those living in resource-constrained environments [55, 56]. Trichomonad infections of the digestive tract are also becoming more widely acknowledged as a common occurrence. Although the exact clinical profile of D. Although the nature of Fragilis is still poorly understood, some believe it to possess pathogenic potential [12], and recent research has linked the emergence of IBS to a high prevalence (%E2%88%BC40%) of D fragilis in Europe [35]. However, the pathogenicity of D. Because many infections are asymptomatic, fragilis has been called into question. Some people even regard it as a commensal of the intestinal flora [57]. Indeed, treatment of D. Metronidazole treatment for children with retinitis fragilis was not linked to improved clinical outcomes [58].

Further information is needed to confirm the pathogenicity of trichomonads in the digestive tract and “aberrant” body sites like the lungs because association does not imply causation. In light of the result of their interactions, it is crucial to take into account the traits of the parasite and the host in this situation. For instance, patients with severe immune compromise, who are more vulnerable to a greater variety of microbial infections than immunocompetent hosts, represent one extreme [59]. When examining the results of interactions between humans and microbes, one finds that a complex web of interactions between animal parasites, microbial eukaryotes, viruses, and bacteria and archaea affects the host’s state of health, with the mucosal microbiota having a major impact on both health and disease 60, 61. These factors and examples suggest that trichomonads may be more common and have a wider range of pathologies in humans than is currently understood. They can affect human health directly through pathologies but also indirectly through local inflammation and mucosal microbiota dysbiosis, which can facilitate the spread of pathogens. One such example is T HIV transmission is facilitated by bacterial vaginosis and vaginalis infection 61, 62. It will also be necessary to take into account the possibility that gut trichomonads could affect the gut microbiota, which could account for reports of a correlation between D fragilis and IBS through inducing gut dysbiosis [35]. In fact, trichomonads’ broad host range, capacity to cause infections at various body sites, and potential to either directly or indirectly contribute to diseases may all be attributed to their ability to survive on a variety of mucosal tissues. The barrier to crossing both species and mucosal sites may lessen once the ability to thrive on vertebrate mucosal surfaces has developed. For example, in the case of T. fetus, a sexually transmitted disease that may have recently moved from the digestive to the urogenital tract, and the parasite’s ability to flourish in the gut of various species (e g. , pigs, cats, and dogs).

Symptoms of Trichomoniasis in Birds

Numerous symptoms of this illness may resemble those of other illnesses. Your bird may appear healthy at first and then exhibit no symptoms. The following symptoms are commonly seen with trichomoniasis:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Anorexia
  • Loss of balance
  • Diarrhea
  • Unwillingness to eat or drink
  • Dull appearance

Non-human species of trichomonad have been isolated from clinical samples

It was previously believed that trichomonads had strict host specificity [25], but recent research has revealed the presence of trichomonad parasites in human clinical samples that had not previously been reported as infecting humans. For instance, the reproductive tract of cattle (Tritrichomonas foetus), the nasal mucosa and intestine of pigs (Tritrichomonas suis), and the intestine of non-human primates (Tritrichomonas mobilensis) can all yield parasites from the genus Tritrichomonas [20]. Another example is T. foetus, historically considered specific to cattle 25, 36. However, molecular data analysis and experimental cross-infections of the parasites between pigs and cattle indicate that these three species are likely strains of the same species 20, 37. In addition, several different genotypes of T. In approximately 12 countries, fetuses have been linked to diarrhea in cats [38, 39]. Additionally, they have been isolated from dogs that have diarrhea [40]. Moreover, in several new clinical cases, T. foetus or T. Unexpectedly, fetus-like organisms have been found in the lungs of patients [41]. Such findings suggest that T. A zoonotic parasite, foetus can infect a wide variety of hosts and body locations.

Members of the genus Tetratrichomonas, which is presently the largest genus in the phylum Parabasalia, are other instances of non-human trichomonad species that have been recently discovered to infect humans. Numerous invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, including leeches, birds, and rodents, have Tetratrichomonas species in their small intestines [42]. In fact, certain tetratrichomonad species—like Tetratrichomonas prowazeki, which has been detected in amphibian and reptile species—are known to infect a broad variety of unrelated hosts [42]. Although its pathogenicity is not fully established [17], Tetratrichomonas gallinarum is another example that is primarily thought of as an avian parasite of the digestive tract in domestic and wild birds [43]. However, Tetratrichomonas strains isolated from human lungs or the oral cavity have been identified as T in a number of recent studies. gallinarum or T. gallinarum-like organisms 24, 44, 45. Additionally, research has revealed that the genus Tetratrichomonas is far more diverse than previously believed and that T gallinarum includes at least three cryptic species, some of which correspond to human isolates, and varying host specificity 24, 43. Notably, two Tetratrichomonas of human origin were not able to be transmitted to birds through experiments; however, the authors propose that this outcome could be explained by either adaptation of the T trichomonads resembling gallinarum to the human host or extensive in vitro culturing, rendering bird infection biologically impossible [24].


Can you get trich from birds?

Trichomoniasis is contagious disease in birds, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. It is transmitted through direct contact and therefore in birds, it can spread easily. Infection with this species of Thrichomona is exclusive to birds and cannot affect humans.

Can humans get trichomoniasis from animals?

Cattle Trichomoniasis or “trich” is a reportable, sexually transmitted disease of cattle caused by the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Trichomoniasis primarily affects beef cattle, however cases have been seen in dairy cattle. Bovine trichomoniasis is not transmittable to humans.

Can you get trich from pets?

Trichomonas tenax is believed to be a human-specific parasite. However, T. tenax infections in dogs are occasionally reported and the possibility of T. tenax cross-infection between domestic animals and humans has been suggested (Cielecka et al., 2000, Szczepaniak et al., 2016).

Which species causes human trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra is the most common site of infection in men.