can birds catch strep throat

Bacterial diseases are common in pet birds and should be considered in the differential list of any sick bird. Inappropriate husbandry and nutrition are often contributing factors. Neonates and young birds are especially susceptible. GI and respiratory infections are most common and can lead to systemic disease.

Normal bacterial flora of companion birds include Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, nonhemolytic Streptococcus, Micrococcus spp, and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

The most commonly reported pathogens are gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Citrobacter spp, Escherichia coli, and Serratia marcescens). Pasteurella spp have been reported as possible septicemic agents in birds attacked by pet cats or rats. Mycobacterium and Chlamydia are common intracellular bacterial pathogens. Infections with Salmonella spp are occasionally seen.

The most common gram-positive bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, S intermedius, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and other Staphylococcus spp. Methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) is rare but has been documented. Mycoplasma spp have been implicated in chronic sinusitis, often found in cockatiels. This organism is difficult to culture, and the true incidence is unknown. Staphylococci and streptococci (especially hemolytic strains) and Bacillus spp are thought to be responsible for several dermatologic conditions in psittacine birds. Staphylococci are often isolated from lesions of pododermatitis (bumblefoot) in many avian species.

Clostridial organisms are common secondary invaders of damaged cloacal tissue in birds with cloacal prolapse or papillomatosis. They are also seen in birds with proventricular dilatation disease Avian Bornavirus / Proventricular Dilatation Disease Avian polyomavirus (APV) causes disease in young parrots. There are two forms of the disease based on affected species: budgerigar fledgling disease and non-budgerigar polyoma infection. Both… read more Avian Bornavirus / Proventricular Dilatation Disease due to decreased GI motility. Several specific syndromes of birds can arise from various species of clostridia. A Gram stain or anaerobic culture is necessary to identify these organisms.

Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and results of cytologic examination and culture of tissue or swab samples. A Gram stain is used to identify normal flora, yeast, and spore-forming bacteria. Culture is needed to identify specific organisms and their sensitivity to antimicrobials. Samples can be obtained from the respiratory, GI, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Sample sites for culture and cytology include the choanal slit, sinus, cloaca, wounds, conjunctiva, internal organs (via ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates, endoscopic examination, or surgery), and blood.

Treatment is based on location of infection and results of culture and sensitivity testing. See table: Antimicrobials Used in Pet Birds Antimicrobials Used in Pet Birds Antimicrobials Used in Pet Birds for a partial list of frequently recommended antimicrobials. Table

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium that can infect all companion birds but is especially common in cockatiels, budgerigars, and small parrots. The incubation period of C psittaci is from 3 days to several weeks. The organism is excreted in the feces and in nasal and ocular discharge of infected birds. Although labile in the environment, the organism can remain infectious in organic debris for >1 month. Clinical signs range from asymptomatic carriers to anorexia, dyspnea or greenish diarrhea. Diagnosis can be challenging. A PCR assay of a combined conjunctival, choanal, and cloacal swab along with serologic testing is recommended. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice and is given orally or by injection for 45 days. Psittacosis is a zoonotic and reportable disease.

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium that can infect all companion birds but is especially common in cockatiels, budgerigars, and parrots. Current state and federal regulations governing the testing, reporting, treatment, and quarantine for Chlamydia should be followed.

Epidemiology of Streptococcosis in Poultry

Numerous bird species, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, have been reported to have streptococcosis. It has a worldwide distribution.

Among flocks, mortality rates from streptococcosis can reach up to 50%.

Skin injuries and oral or aerosol routes are the two ways that streptococcal infections are spread.

Diagnosis of Streptococcosis in Poultry

  • Bacterial isolation via culture

A presumptive diagnosis of streptococcosis is made possible by the patient’s history, clinical symptoms, lesions, and demonstration of Streptococcus-like bacteria in blood films or impression smears of affected tissues.

Isolation of Streptococcus spp from lesions confirms the diagnosis. Streptococci can be cultured on blood agar.

In addition to streptococcosis, other bacterial septicemic diseases include the following in their differential diagnosis:

The following differential diagnoses for streptococcosis should be taken into consideration when blood is observed coming from the mouth:

Zoonotic Potential of Chlamydiosis in Pet Birds

Since C psittaci can spread to humans, the zoonotic risk needs to be taken into account when creating the diagnostic and treatment strategy. It is important to abide by the state and federal laws currently in effect regarding the testing, reporting, treatment, and quarantine of birds harboring chlamydia infections. The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians has a list of control measures.

An important disease that affects domestic, exotic, and companion birds is called avian mycobacteriosis. The most frequent causes of this illness are Mycobacterium avium and M. genovense. Although other organ systems may also be impacted, liver and GI tract lesions are the most common ones. The duration of the infection and the organ system that is impacted determine the general nonspecificity of the disease’s signs. Due to the slow growth of these organisms and the chronic nature of most diseases, older birds are typically affected.

The difficult diagnosis process involves the use of the PCR assay, acid-fast staining, and occasionally biopsy, cytology, and/or histopathology. Treatment involves combination antimicrobial therapy for 6–12 months or longer. Even though recent studies suggest that infected birds are unlikely to pose a zoonotic risk, it is still possible for zoonotic transmission to occur, particularly when it comes to immunocompromised humans.

Less frequently reported are avian mycobacteriosis infections brought on by Mycobacterium intracellulare, M. bovis, and M. tuberculosis. The most frequently infected Psittacine birds are Amazon parrots and Brotogeris parakeets. The GI system and liver are affected by the chronic, progressive disease known as avian mycobacteriosis.


Can animals get strep throat from humans?

Because different strains of the bacteria are responsible for the illness in dogs than in humans, if a dog has strep throat, it’s unlikely that they caught the illness from a person. Although there is the rare potential for a dog to pass a strep infection to a person through close contact, it would be very unlikely.

Can birds carry Streptococcus?

Streptococcosis has been reported in numerous bird species, including turkeys, ducks and geese, and chickens. It has a worldwide distribution.

Can birds get sick from humans?

Most human diseases, including those that cause the common cold and the flu, are not transmittable to our companion birds. If exposed to certain viruses or bacterial infections known to afflict parrots, your bird could develop an infection on her own even if her human family is healthy.

Can birds get sore throats?

?The throat of a bird with a severe upper respiratory infection. The front of the choana (the ‘slot) is swollen closed and bubbly mucus is draining from the sinuses through the choana into the mouth. The pharyngeal tonsil is swollen and red and is readily visible as the triangular structure in the bird’s palate.