do birds have a pancreas

The avian endocrine pancreas is comprised of A-islets containing A1- and A2- cell types, and B-islets containing A1- and B-cell types. The function of the A2- and B-cells is the secretion of glucagon and insulin, respectively, while that of the A2-cells is uncertain.

The avian pancreas contains small amounts of insulin, has poor insulinogenic potential, and releases the hormone “sluggishly” in response to high glucose load. Fasting, hormones, and/or vagal stimulation do not alter insulin release. Avian insulin is not anti-lipolytic and is poorly lipogenic in in vitro avian systems.

Both avian pancreas and plasma contain 5-10 times more glucagon than observed in mammals; however, no studies have been reported employing the avian hormone. Birds are extremely sensitive to mammalian glucagon, exhibiting a rapid and marked hyperglycemia, hepatic glycogenolysis, hyperglycerolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. The lipolytic effects of glucagon are intensified in ‘vitro’ by insulin.

A pancreatic polypeptide (APP) containing 36 amino acid residues has been isolated from the avian pancreas, but not from gut, liver, proventriculus, or gizzard. APP circulates normally, fluctuates with nutritional manipulation, and is found in all avian species investigated. At high levels APP induces hepatic glycogenolysis and hypoglycerolemia. At low levels APP is a powerful “gastric” secretogogue, encouraging rapid proventricular volume, acid, pepsin, and protein release.

About this Research Topic Manuscript Submission Deadline 11 October 2023 Manuscript Extension Submission Deadline 29 February 2024

The exocrine function of mammals differs in a number of ways from the avian pancreas. For instance, compared to mammals, birds have much higher levels of pancreatic enzyme activity; the secret rate of the avian pancreas exceeds the activity of mammalian enzymes per kilogram of live weight several times over. The exocrine function of mammals differs in a number of ways from the avian pancreas. For instance, the secret rate of the avian pancreas exceeds the activity of mammal enzymes per kilogram of live weight several times over, indicating that the activity of pancreatic enzymes in birds is significantly higher than in mammals. The reason for this variation can be attributed to birds’ adaptation to flight. Studying the function of this signaling molecule in the regulation of pancreatic function and metabolism in general is necessary in light of recent data on the role of trypsin in the regulation of metabolism in animals. Acquiring data on each of these research domains will serve as the foundation for additional investigation into the function of the pancreas in birds. The increased activity of pancreatic enzymes in pancreatic juice, which provides an intense metabolism, is a characteristic of birds. Additionally, it is known that digestive enzymes, which influence a number of bodily processes, are active in the blood of birds. However, because there is a dearth of scientific information, the function of digestive enzymes in avian blood is not well understood. Thus, the goal of this research topic is to ascertain how the pancreas functions in every aspect of a bird’s life. The following research will be done to find out: 1) Examining how the activity of pancreatic enzymes in birds ages; 2) examining how these enzymes adapt to different feed ingredients and additives; 3) figuring out how pancreatic secretion changes during the pre- and postprandial phases of digestion; 4) examining the function of trypsin in bird blood; and 5) examining the endocrine function of the avian pancreas. Understanding these matters is crucial for planning logical poultry diets and for advancing our knowledge of how trypsin regulates metabolism in both humans and animals. Original research and review articles are welcome in this research topic on a variety of subjects, including but not limited to: 1) The exocrine and endocrine function of the bird’s pancreas; 2) The impact of trypsin in the blood on life processes and digestion; and 3) The influence of feed additives, diet type, and bird age on the activity of pancreatic enzymes in the blood of birds and digestion processes.

Keywords: bird pancreas, age-related alterations in the pancreas, adaptation of the pancreas to the composition of the diet in birds, food-stimulating the pancreatic secretory function, trypsin

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There are five to ten times as much glucagon in avian pancreas and plasma as in mammalian samples; however, no research using the avian hormone has been published. Birds display a fast and noticeable hyperglycemia, hepatic glycogenolysis, hyperglycerolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when exposed to mammalian glucagon. Insulin increases the lipolytic effects of glucagon in “vitro.”

The avian pancreas has been found to contain a pancreatic polypeptide (APP) with 36 amino acid residues; however, the gut, liver, proventriculus, or gizzard do not contain this protein. APP is present in all studied bird species, circulates normally, and varies in response to changes in nutrition. At high levels APP induces hepatic glycogenolysis and hypoglycerolemia. APP is a potent “gastric” secretogogue at low concentrations that promotes rapid proventricular volume, acid, pepsin, and protein release.

The A-islets, which contain A1- and A2-cell types, and the B-islets, which contain A1- and B-cell types, make up the avian endocrine pancreas. The secretion of glucagon and insulin, respectively, is the function of the B-cells and A2-cells; the function of the latter is unknown.

The avian pancreas has a low potential for insulinogenesis, produces little insulin, and reacts to high glucose loads by releasing insulin “sluggishly.” Fasting, hormones, and/or vagal stimulation do not alter insulin release. In vitro avian systems, avian insulin is not anti-lipolytic and has low lipogenicity.