can birds get herpes from humans

A number of diseases may involve multiple parts or organ systems of a bird’s body. Signs can be general (such as weakness or lack of interest in food or activities) or more specific. Sometimes no signs are noted. The more common of these disorders are discussed here.

Polyomavirus was first identified in budgerigars (budgies), then in other parrots and parakeets, and most recently has been shown to cause disease in finches. Polyomavirus can infect birds of all ages, but nestlings and juveniles are the most susceptible. Affected birds may have a lack of appetite, diarrhea, and generalized weakness, and the onset of these signs is usually rapid. Bruising of the skin and muscles may also occur, and the infection may target the heart, liver, and kidneys. Infection is usually fatal, and death may occur in 24 to 48 hours. If a bird survives, it may have abnormal feather growth, heart disease, and liver damage as an adult. Adult birds may be carriers of the virus and can spread infection. The prevalence of this virus in adult parrots and budgies is thought to be high.

Polyomavirus can be passed from the female to the egg, but most infections are spread by direct contact, feather dander, and exposure to feces. Exposed females may develop protective antibodies that are passed on to nestlings and may provide temporary immunity. Offspring from unexposed females are at higher risk of infection because they lack protective antibodies.

There is no treatment available for infected birds. Spread of the virus can be controlled through testing and isolation of all infected birds and by vaccination. Because infected adults shed the virus only under certain conditions, identifying infected adults can be difficult. Control during an outbreak can be maintained by disinfecting handfeeding utensils, incubators, and brooders and by vaccination. The chances of exposure to polyomavirus can be reduced by following standard hygiene procedures closely, preventing access to baby birds by visitors or any returned bird or outside bird, and using appropriate quarantine procedures for all new birds. Screening by a veterinarian should first be done to make sure that avian polyoma-virus is not already present.

A vaccine to prevent polyomavirus infection is available and is given in 2 doses. The first dose may be given by the veterinarian as early as 4 weeks of age to properly complete the vaccination series and allow full immunity to develop. Older birds receive 2 vaccines 2 to 4 weeks apart, then 1 booster annually. Both negative and positive adult and juvenile parrots can be vaccinated.

Lowered barriers of transmission – xenotransplantations

One major obstacle to the field of human transplantation medicine is the lack of adequate organ donors. The domestic pig is the preferred species for producing organs for xenotransplantation for a variety of reasons, and research into xenogenic organs has been conducted for decades in an attempt to address that issue (Calne, 1966; Deodhar, 1986; Schuurman and Pierson, III, 2008). A major obstacle to realizing this dream, aside from all the immunological issues that would cause the transplant to be rejected right away, is the potential for viruses to be transferred from the donor animal to the recipient through contaminated or infected organs (Isacson and Breakefield, 1997; Fishman and Patience, 2004). Not only would patients receiving such an organ from a different species have a significantly lower barrier of transmission To reduce the risk of transplant rejection, all organ recipients—regardless of the organ’s source—must undergo immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Unfortunately, such immunosuppressive treatment also significantly lowers the host immune system’s capacity to limit latent or persistent viruses present in the transplant It is therefore well known that e. g. Human cytomegaloviruses that are “incoming” or present in the recipient of the organ pose a significant risk to transplant medicine because immunosuppressive therapy may reactivate the virus (Slifkin et al. , 2004). Retro-but also gammaherpesviruses are among the porcine viruses that could be dangerous following xenotransplantation. It was recently demonstrated that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-4, Epstein-Barr virus) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus 1, which are closely related to humans, can transactivate one another. A double infection of one or the same cells with both gammaherpesviruses cannot be ruled out, as co-infection of recipients with HHV-4 and the porcine virus would be very likely. As a result, these co-infections pose a serious risk to the long-term health of the recipient of a pig transplant, particularly when immunosuppressive therapy is being used. They may also cause HHV-4 to reactivate. It’s also possible that the viruses that infect pigs adapt to humans and take hold, leading to genuine zoonotic infections. Thus, there is a significant ethical dilemma when it comes to xenotransplants since one must balance the individual’s health (and right thereto) against the possibility of harm to the public’s health (Santoni et al. , 2006).

Pacheco’s Disease (Pacheco’s Herpesvirus)

A herpesvirus is the cause of Pacheco’s disease, a highly contagious and rapidly developing condition that affects parrots (psittacines). Stress is linked to this illness, and in birds that appear healthy but are infected, stress can spread the virus to vulnerable birds. It is transmitted by direct bird-to-bird contact, airborne secretions, or feces-contaminated food or water. Macaws, conures, Amazon parrots, and monk parakeets are frequently implicated in disease outbreaks. Old World species have lower rates of infection susceptibility or carriers.

Before they pass away, infected birds may not exhibit any symptoms of the illness. The birds typically have a healthy appetite and are in good condition. Watery feces, loss of energy, and fluff are symptoms that infected birds can occasionally exhibit. Most birds do not recover from the infection. It is imperative that Pacheco’s disease be diagnosed as soon as possible to stop the infection from spreading. See Pachecos disease (Psittacine herpesvirus) for more information. Birds can have a variety of digestive disorders, including parasites and infections, which can lead to issues. A detailed discussion of some of the more prevalent disorders is provided in the next section. Avian gastric. read more to learn more.

Other significant herpesviruses found in pet birds include the strain that causes papillomas, or wart-like foot growths, in Cacatua species and the aberrant color loss seen in macaws’ feet. The herpesvirus responsible for Pacheco’s disease is also linked to the internal papillomatous disease that affects Amazon parrots and macaws, particularly green-wing macaws (Ara chloroptera). Herpesviruses are also the cause of Amazon tracheitis, an uncommon infection that causes inflammation of the trachea.

The poxvirus that was previously prevalent in imported blue-fronted Amazon parrots is rarely observed in pet birds due to import restrictions. However, canaries, pigeons, and a number of wild bird species are still susceptible to poxvirus infections. These viruses are not contagious to psittacines (parrots).

There are three distinct types of clinical signs that pet birds can display. The first type, skin infection, is the most common. These birds’ unfeathered areas of skin, like the face (particularly around the eyes and mouth), legs, and feet, have isolated growths, tiny abscesses, or crusty scabs. The second type, known as the diphtheritic or “wet” form, can develop independently or in tandem with the skin form. Injuries to the throat, upper airways, and esophagus mucous membranes occur after swelling and discharges from the eyes. The third and most severe type is characterized by a sudden onset of generalized symptoms such as depression, bluish skin discoloration, appetite loss, and sudden death.

Veterinarians frequently advise vitamin A and antibiotic therapy, eye ointments, heat, humidity, daily cleaning of the afflicted areas, and dietary considerations. Poxvirus infections are spread through skin breaks or insect (mostly mosquito) bites. Thus, indoor housing and mosquito control are essential for preventing outbreaks. There are canarypox and pigeonpox vaccines available, but they are only effective against the species they infect.

Sometimes referred to as “avian tuberculosis,” mycobacteriosis is a bacterial infection that is distinct from tuberculosis in mammals. Mycobacteriosis in companion birds is associated with certain species of Mycobacterium bacteria.

The parrot family of pet birds is most commonly affected by mycobacteriosis, which typically affects the intestinal tract. Most birds that are infected are adults. The gastrointestinal system and liver are both impacted by the chronic, progressive illness. For many birds, infection is fatal.

Infection symptoms can include diarrhea, depression, loss of appetite, and weight loss despite having a healthy appetite. Birds with early infections may not show signs. Making a diagnosis can be difficult, but it is usually possible with a biopsy and specialized staining for the organisms. The organisms are difficult to culture.

Therapy can be challenging and require a full year. Furthermore, since the illness may spread from birds to people, extreme caution must be taken to prevent infection. This includes wearing gloves, properly cleaning hands with soap and water after coming into contact with a sick bird, and following other good hygiene practices. Even though there is little evidence to support the theory that people can contract an infection from pet birds, those who are very young, elderly, or immune system compromised (such as those living with HIV) should avoid contact with any infected birds.

Herpesviruses associated with zoonotic potential

Herpesviruses that are theoretically capable of infecting human cells in cell culture undoubtedly pose a zoonotic threat. Members of the Alphaherpesvirinae family, such as Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1, pseudorabies virus) and equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), are examples of herpesviruses in this category. In vitro, it was demonstrated that the latter could infect a broad range of cells from different host species and tissues, including human epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, it is possible to demonstrate the ability of EHV-1 to traverse species barriers by demonstrating productive intranasal infection with the virus in other species, such as the mouse or Syrian hamster. The threat appears to be mostly theoretical in nature because there are no seropositive results from humans regularly working with EHV-1 and no human infections have been reported to date (Trapp et al. , 2005).

SuHV-1 can penetrate species barriers and spread infections, and it is the cause of Aujeszky’s disease in pigs. g. in sheep, dogs, cattle, panther or mink. Animals infected with viruses from species other than swine always experience severe neurological symptoms before passing away (Kluge et al. , 1992; Glass et al. , 1994; Marcaccini et al. , 2008). Primates and humans appear to be resistant to PRV infection for unknown reasons, despite anecdotal reports of three cases of infections in humans. It has been demonstrated that HHV-1, HHV-2, and SuHV-1 enter target cells via the same set of cellular receptors. As a result, although it has not been thoroughly studied, a post-entry restriction of virus growth is probably present (Mravak et al. , 1987; Kluge et al. , 1992).

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2, also known as Marek’s disease virus) is another alphaherpesvirus that has been implicated in human infections. Initially, several reports suggested a link between GaHV-2 infection and MS (McStreet et al. , 1992). Human serum samples appeared to test GaHV-2-positive by PCR, according to another study (Laurent et al. , 2001). However, other research groups were unable to replicate the results, so they have to be considered inconclusive (Hennig et al. , 1998; Hennig et al. , 2003). Currently, there is no official evidence or even possibility that humans could contract this avian herpesvirus, which can also infect other host species like turkeys and quail in addition to chickens.

Phocid herpesvirus 2 (PhHV-2) is a seal gammaherpesvirus that also carries the risk of spreading to humans. Gammaherpesviruses typically have a narrow host range, but PhHV-2 isolates can infect a wide range of cells in vitro from various species, including human and primate cell lines. Furthermore, it is feasible to experimentally infect mice and even monkeys, and virus replication in the upper respiratory tract and in PBMCs may be verified (Martina et al. , 2007).

FAQ

Can herpes spread to birds?

Avian herpesviruses cause some of the more familiar diseases of birds, such as Marek disease (1, 2), infectious laryngotracheitis (3), duck plague in poultry (4), and Pacheco disease in parrots (5), as well as diseases in free-living birds that are equally important.

Can humans transmit herpes to animals?

Herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. Only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission.

What animal did herpes come from?

Because the chimpanzee herpes simplex virus found its way back into our lineage, we are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses. But how the transmission occurred from primate-to-hominid all those years ago remains a mystery.

Can pets get HSV?

Canines cannot get the herpes virus seen in people. Fortunately, the HSV-1 and HSV-2 viruses are able to live and reproduce in humans only. That said, there is a strain of the disease that is specific to dogs and, like their cousins, it is not transmissible between species either.