can birds eat bulgur wheat

I also use the following healthy foods with my birds: bananas, apples, pears, melons, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cherries, apricots, peaches, nectarine, pineapples, guavas, mangoes, and grapes (just a small amount because they are not very nutritious). Boiled or dry-roasted potatoes (a healthy substitute for the delectable but utterly unhealthy french fries) Swede (sorry, rutabas) potatoes cooked in water or with carrot in freshly squeezed orange juice Kale, cauliflower, cabbage, pumpkin (with seeds), spinach, and vegetable marrow Onions — either fresh, dry roasted or boiled. Garlic — same as for onions. Whole wheat, brown rice, pearl barley, oats, bulgur wheat. Fresh fruit sweetened natural yoghurt is a great way to enhance the environment in the digestive tract for naturally occurring, healthy flora and is a great source of beneficial bacteria. When used sparingly, low-fat or hard cheese can be a good source of oils and protein. As flavorings, onions, garlic, and very small amounts of cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, and sweet bay can all be used. Dried, powdered chillis and paprika can be used reasonably liberally.

Bad foods are Avocado — highly toxic and rapidly fatal. Overly acidic and potentially containing traces of the toxin oxalic acid even after cooking, rhubarb Olives: too much oil or salt; if improperly prepared, they may contain harmful processing residues. Egg plants, or aubergines, may contain slightly elevated levels of solanin. While this substance is generally safe for humans in such quantities, it may cause upset stomachs or worse in parrots. Asparagus: The compound asparagin, which gives asparagus its distinctive flavor, can seriously upset stomachs. Chocolate: Theobromin, which gives chocolate its distinct flavor and is believed by some to have a calming, almost addictive effect on people, is toxic to parasites and has been linked to cardiac and respiratory issues that can eventually result in death. Anything that contains caffeine, such as tea or coffee, can eventually cause cardiac issues and, in rare circumstances, can also cause hyperactivity. Anything containing alcohol. Large amounts of milk or cream are improperly digested and can lead to digestive issues when consumed frequently over an extended period of time. Due to its high fat content and potential for the same digestive issues as milk and cream, butter The “jury is still out” when it comes to coriander, and I would use caution when using nutmeg as a flavoring because it can be deadly even in small doses.

There are undoubtedly a ton of other foods that should be added to the list of enemies, but I am at a loss for what to include. In my opinion, the best rule to follow when it comes to a parrot’s diet is “If in doubt, don’t.” There are a ton of excellent foods you can feed your bird without having to turn to ones that are dubious. Hope this helps.

The Benefits of Fresh Food for your Companion Parrot

One could understandably be perplexed about what his parrot’s ideal diet should consist of after perusing parrot magazines, books, and websites. Some people maintain that parrots should only be fed pellets because they offer the ideal ratio of all the nutrients a parrot needs. Adding other foods, the argument goes, could disrupt this balance. But a lot of parrot breeders and owners believe that the best diet is a combination of fresh food and pellets. However, some parrot keepers feed only seeds and other fresh foods instead of pellets at all. So, what is the best diet to feed?.

Let’s examine the assertion that pellets offer the ideal diet first. Given that most manufacturers base the ingredients in their pellets on a substantial amount of avian nutrition research, a parrot fed pellets is extremely unlikely to experience any serious nutritional deficiencies. Pellets may not be “perfect” for every species, though, especially considering that most formulations are based on studies done on chickens or a single species of parrot, usually the cockatiel. Because the digestive systems and growth rates of parrots and poultry differ, consideration is given to these differences when extrapolating nutrient requirements for parrots from poultry studies. This may not be ideal, but it is what is done because it is not practical to conduct in-depth research on the dietary requirements of every species of parrot.

A common concern among parrot owners is whether the 350+ species of parrots that exist could all be perfectly fed by a small number of pellet varieties. There is no “one size fits all” diet that is appropriate for all parrots because they can be found in a variety of habitats across multiple continents. For instance, Hyacinth Macaws consume nearly only high-fat palm nuts, but other species, like the majority of Amazons, will eat parts of dozens of different plants. An Amazon would not be able to get enough fat and energy from an ideal diet, and an Amazon would become obese from a good macaw diet. This has been considered by many pellet producers, who now offer low-fat or high-energy diets. There are additional formulations available for birds that are breeding or have allergies. Nevertheless, only a few pellet kinds are produced by most manufacturers for the roughly 100 species of parrots that are kept as pets by aviculturists. Therefore, even though pellets are an excellent source of nutrition for birds, they probably won’t be ideal.

Furthermore, the assertion that feeding a parrot more food upsets the nutritional balance in the pellets presupposes that the bird’s owner feeds them mostly junk food. This is the case for a few unknowledgeable parrot owners. On the other hand, a lot of responsible parrot owners watch what their bird eats. A parrot’s diet can be supplemented with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts to give him additional nutrients and a much better quality of life.

An owner who has researched the habits of wild parrots can also customize the diet for their bird by adding fresh food to a pelleted diet. The owners of large macaws, for instance, can supplement their bird’s diet with extra fatty nuts, as many wild macaws, such as Blue-throats and Hyacinths, consume palm nuts in the wild, which are approximately 25.66% fat. Since wild Eclectus parrots consume a lot of fruit, owners of Eclectus parrots can increase their bird’s diet by adding more fruits and vegetables instead of nuts. Owners of Australian parakeets, including budgies, cockatiels, and Bourke’s Parakeets, should add items like millet to their pet’s diet because these birds consume a lot of grains and small seeds in the wild.

Phytonutrients: A Great Reason to Feed Fresh Foods

Additionally, fruits and vegetables give parrots additional nutrition in the form of

phytonutrients, which are also called phytochemicals. Since the word “phyto” means “plant,” these are merely organic substances that naturally exist in plants. The main difference between vitamins and minerals and phytonutrients is that the former are not required for healthy functioning, while the latter offer significant health benefits. For instance, hundreds of studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of many naturally occurring plant molecules on lowering the incidence of cancer in humans and laboratory animals were found when I searched for research articles on the topic. In cultures containing a mixture of cancerous and healthy cells, certain phytonutrients actually specifically kill cancer cells.

Additionally, phytonutrients assist in preventing animal cells from being harmed by oxygen. Ironically, over time, oxygen can harm animal cells even though it is necessary for survival and is utilized by the immune system. This damage is called “oxidative stress. Specifically, oxygen can react with other substances to create peroxides and free radicals, two kinds of reactive, harmful molecules.

While most damage caused by peroxides and free radicals can be repaired by normal animal cells, these defense mechanisms weaken with age. Animals that consume plant-based diets can help their bodies repair damaged cells more effectively. Antioxidants are found in many fruits and vegetables, and they react with free radicals or peroxides to make them harmless. Your parrot will stay fit and healthy for a long time if you feed him a lot of fruits and vegetables because oxidative stress can lead to age-related issues like atherosclerosis. Similar to humans, parrots can develop atherosclerosis, which is an inflammation of the arteries (Bavelaar and Beynen, 2004). Consuming an abundance of fruits and vegetables also helps delay or stop the development of different neurodegenerative diseases.

Anthocyanins, the red, purple, or blue pigments found in plants; lycopenes, the red pigment found in tomatoes and grapefruits; carotenoids, the red, yellow, or orange pigments found in plants; and phenolic acids, the red pigment found in many berries, nuts, and chili peppers, are a few examples of phytochemicals. Vitamins A, C, and E also act as antioxidants. Pellets will contain these vitamins, but they will also contain low amounts or none at all of other healthy antioxidants that are present in plant-based foods. While vegetables are present in a few pellet brands, they are typically listed far down the list of ingredients, meaning that they only make up a small portion of the pellet.

Healthy Table Foods for Parrots

To provide a parrot with an ideal diet, most species require a combination of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds added to a pelleted diet. Ideally, at least 25% of the diet should be made up of unprocessed foods, but this percentage can increase if the owner requests it and has completed his research. A lot of additional foods must be added to the diet of birds that are fed only seeds in order to keep the parrot from becoming seriously malnourished. Most pet stores’ seed mixtures are deficient in several vitamins and minerals that are essential for parrots to function properly. When fed only seeds, parrots can become deficient in vitamin A, calcium, iodine, and/or magnesium. Additionally, many of them, particularly Amazons and Rose-breasted Cockatoos, can develop obesity (Stahl and Kronfield, 1998; Doneley, 2003).

Grains: A Good Source of Protein, Minerals, Vitamin B, and Carbohydrates

Approximately 330 percent of a parrot’s fresh food intake can come from grains and foods based on grains. Whole grains, not refined ones, should be used to make grain-based dishes. When it comes to nutrition, whole grains are far superior to refined grains or products made from them. Grains that have had the bran and germ removed, or most of the nutrition, are considered refined. Refined grain products include white bread, white pasta, and white rice. Although certain refined grain products are fortified with iron and B vitamins, they still have a lower fiber content than whole-grain products.

Whole grains that can be fed to parrots include brown millet, oatmeal, and cooked brown rice. Most birds will accept the millet sprigs found in pet stores as a treat. They are primarily sold to owners of small birds, but many large birds also adore them. Ripley, my Amazon, adores millet and it’s also low in fat. Other unusual grains or foods that resemble grains, such as amaranth, brown couscous, quinoa, or bulgur, are also excellent for feeding to parrots. While bulgur and cracked wheat are similar, bulgur is typically boiled, dried, and broken up. Although they are not derived from plants in the grass family, quinoa and amaranth taste and look a lot like grains, so they are not considered true grains. Because of their somewhat nutty flavor, bulgur, quinoa, and amaranth are favorites among most parrots. They work well as a food for “seed junkies,” or birds that eat seeds despite their owners’ best efforts to provide them with a healthier diet. For instance, the Quaker Parrot I fostered initially refused to eat many fresh foods, but he devoured the first bowl of quinoa I gave him.

Although quinoa can be prepared similarly to rice, it does have one drawback. Unpalatable saponins that coat the “grains” should be removed before cooking. This can be accomplished in one of two ways: either soak the grain in water for a few hours and then discard the water, or rinse the grains in a fine strainer under running water for a short while. Sometimes, boxes of pre-rinsed quinoa are available to purchase. Amaranth seeds resemble grains and can be prepared similarly to rice, just like quinoa. They do not need to be rinsed first.

Excellent sources of B vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and proteins are found in most whole grains. Additionally, the majority of whole grains include all or most of the essential amino acids that your parrot needs. There are various types of amino acids that parrots need to eat, as they are the “building blocks” of proteins. About 10% to 12% of protein is found in the majority of whole grains, which is about how much protein most adult non-breeding parrots require for maintenance. During a molt, this can be increased to 15-19%.

Fruit for Provitamin A and Antioxidants

One great thing to add to your parrot’s diet is fresh fruits. All can be offered to your parrot, except avocado. But not all fruits are made equal, and some do have a higher vitamin content than others.

The best method for determining a fruit’s vitamin content is to look at the color of the flesh, not the skin. The majority of fruits that are red, yellow, and orange are rich in provitamin A, which is a precursor to vitamin A. These substances, called carotenoids, are what parrots’ bodies can use to make vitamin A. Carotenoids also act as antioxidants. Cantaloupe, sweet red, yellow, or orange peppers, apricots, red or pink grapefruit, papayas, mangos, pumpkin, and tomatoes are the best fruit sources of them. Orange peaches, plums, and green peppers also contain some carotenoids. Generally speaking, fruit flesh with a darker color contains more carotenoids.

However, some fruits are deficient in certain vitamins and minerals. These include fruits like apples, pears, and grapes that have pale flesh. Nonetheless, since these are frequently the preferred fruits of parrots and do contain healthy phytochemicals, give them to your bird as treats. Because they are an excellent source of B vitamins, parrots that enjoy them can also be fed bananas.

Give your parrot berries as well; in addition to being nutrient-dense, many parrots like to remove the seeds. Berries should be given to parrots in an area where messes are easy to clean up after because this can get really messy. Lucy, my conure, will bite into a berry and shake it hard to extract as much juice as possible so she can see the seed inside. She always manages to splatter juice everywhere. Keep in mind that berries can make a bird’s droppings purple or red. When I first got her, I once thought Garnet was bleeding when I saw that her droppings were a dark red color. Fortunately, I quickly remembered that I had added some berries to her food. Garnet is my cobalt Lineolated Parakeet.

Vitamin K can be found in raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Berries also have higher concentrations of antioxidants than most other fruits (Neto, 2007; Wu et al. , 2004; Žit?anová et al. , 2006). Blackberries in particular have high concentrations of phytochemicals that may help stop or slow the growth of cancer (Ding et al. , 2006). Pomegranates, like berries, also contain very high levels of antioxidants.

The majority of fruits have some vitamin C, with citrus fruits and berries having the highest levels. But since most parrots can manufacture vitamin C on their own, they rarely require an outside source. But parrots that are sick or injured might benefit from diets high in vitamin C.

Lentils and Beans for Protein and Antioxidants

Lentils and beans are packed with protein and are highly nutritious. For instance, protein accounts for 2024, 2027, and 2024 percent of the calories in cooked kidney beans, lentils, and garbanzo beans, respectively. Beans and lentils also contain B vitamins and many minerals. Your parrot can get all the amino acids he needs by eating grains along with beans or lentils. Additionally, some beans contain high extremely high levels of antioxidants. More antioxidants can be found in pinto and kidney beans than in most other vegetables (Wu et al. , 2004).

Vegetables for Vitamins and Minerals

Give your parrot vegetables on a regular basis because they are a great source of vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. A parrot should consume more vegetables than fruits in the long run.

Many vegetables are excellent providers of calcium; however, if your parrot consumes a lot of grains and/or beans, you will need to supplement the diet with a calcium-rich food. For the most part, parrots require a phosphorus:calcium ratio of one. 5:2 to 1:2 in their diet, with the majority of grains having high phosphorus content and low calcium content.

Broccoli and other dark green, leafy vegetables are some of the best plant-based calcium sources for your parrot. The issue is that some parrots will not eat their greens unless they were fed them as young birds, so you may need to be persistent in getting them to do so. Additionally, certain nuts and seeds have calcium; sesame seeds are an excellent source of this mineral. There is also some calcium in almonds, flaxseeds, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, and pistachios. Yogurt is also acceptable to include in your parrot’s diet because it is high in calcium and low in lactose, which is indigestible to parrots. This is a result of the yogurt’s bacteria breaking down lactose first. Additionally, tofu has a high calcium content, particularly the varieties prepared with calcium sulfate.

Most dark green vegetables are rich in carotenoids and high in calcium; in fact, they have more carotenoids than most fruits. Carotenoids are abundant in orange vegetables such as sweet potatoes and carrots. Along with some carotenoids, green beans and peas also include a good amount of vitamin K, B vitamins, and protein. Because some parrots enjoy cracking open the pod to get the peas inside, try serving green peas whole in their pods. Birds can also be fed clean, unsprayed dandelion or chickweed greens if you can find them; they are excellent sources of provitamin A and calcium. Parrots can also be fed beets and Brussels sprouts, which have a high antioxidant content (Žit?anová et al. , 2006). Feeding beets to your bird should be done carefully because the dark red juice stains most things it comes into contact with and causes the bird’s droppings to turn bright red.

Don’t feed onions to other animals because they can make some of them anemic. Although I’m not sure if this applies to parrots, I don’t feed mine onions. Also, limit the amount of spinach in a parrot’s diet. Spinach contains oxalic acid, which interferes with calcium utilization.

Seeds and Nuts: A Parrot’s Favorite!

It was customary for parrot owners to feed their birds nothing but seeds and nuts for a very long time. This is an inadequate diet. On the other hand, the diet should include nuts and seeds. Serve as treats for species of parrots that are prone to obesity, like Pionus parrots, Rose-breasted Cockatoos, and Amazons. For instance, Ripley typically receives one or two almonds every day, a spoonful of a seed mix free of sunflower seeds a few times a week, and sunflower seeds or pieces of different nuts as rewards during training sessions. However, large macaws, such as Hyacinths and Greenwings, which consume a lot of high-fat nuts in the wild, may eat a larger portion of seeds and nuts. The feathers of many Blue and Gold and Greenwing Macaws that I have encountered have a lot more color than those that are fed only pellets. This is because they receive a handful of nuts in addition to their pellets every day. Additionally, many conures have good fat metabolisms and can eat a spoonful of seeds every day without getting fat. Because most parrots enjoy eating and shelling seeds and nuts, they are also excellent teaching tools. Few parrots that I have encountered will turn down a sunflower seed or piece of nut; instead, the majority will cheerfully “step up” or perform easy tasks in exchange for the chance to have one.

Most nuts are excellent providers of protein, fat, and trace minerals. Some also contain essential fatty acids. Although fat is generally viewed as harmful, and excessive amounts of it certainly are, fat is actually necessary for many biological processes, including the synthesis of hormones and the absorption of some vitamins. The development of new, healthy feathers as well as normal nerve function depend on the fatty acids. The diet needs to contain both Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. Both are abundant in flax seeds, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, and walnuts; moderate sources include pecans, sesame seeds, Brazil nuts, and pumpkin seeds. Essential fatty acids are present in flax and fish oils as well as the majority of oils derived from plants.

Although nuts and seeds are nutrient-dense, use caution when giving them to your parrot. When given a large amount of seed alongside other foods, many parrots will choose to only eat the seeds. If your parrot exhibits such behavior, avoid providing seeds in addition to his fruits, pellets, and veggies. If there are seeds nearby to eat, none of my birds will touch the fruits or vegetables. The other foods will be thrown to the ground and the seeds consumed. Ripley, my Amazon, also does this with corn, as far as I can tell. She eats the corn and discards the remaining food if I add it to her grain and veggie mix. She will eat the grain, peas, and carrots if I leave the corn out. It is not as nutrient-dense as other grains and veggies, so I would rather she not eat corn exclusively. She does, however, receive it sometimes as a treat. Keep in mind that providing your parrot with a diverse diet does not guarantee that she is actually eating one. Observe your parrot’s intake initially to ensure that she is genuinely consuming a range of foods.

Since peanuts are actually a legume rather than a nut, most parrots adore them. If you want to feed your parrot peanuts, though, exercise caution and only give him clean, roasted, human-grade peanuts. This is due to the fact that Aspergillus, a toxic fungus, occasionally grows in peanut shells. This fungus produces aflatoxins, which can damage a parrot’s liver. Seek for black dots within the shells, as these are signs of the presence of the fungus.

Sprouts: Living, Concentrated Packets of Nutrition

One of the healthiest foods a parrot can eat is sprouts. A seed produces a lot of protein, antioxidants, and provitamin A once it starts to germinate. Among the many seeds that can be sprouted are mung beans, lentils, wheat, alfalfa seeds, millet, quinoa, or sunflower seeds. The best places to buy seeds for sprouting are grocery or health food stores. Use seeds that are intended for human consumption.

To sprout seeds, follow these steps: First, get clean seeds; then, rinse them until the water runs clear. After that, leave them in water overnight and give them a thorough rinse the next morning. Place them in a dark, well-ventilated area after spreading them out in a jar, pan, commercial sprouter, or colander. Rinse them several times daily. When the little tails, or roots, appear, they are ready to eat. You don’t have to wait for the green plant shoot to emerge. Offering seed addicts these recently germinated seeds is another excellent option.

Because sprouts can easily turn moldy, frequent rinsing is necessary. As soon as they sprout, place them in the refrigerator; don’t keep them there for longer than a few days. Do not feed sprouts that smell sour or rancid.

Species with Special Dietary Needs

1. Lories and Lorikeets

The dietary requirements of these colorful, energetic parrots differ greatly from those of the “typical” parrot. While lories and lorikeets typically eat a lot of nectar, most wild parrots tend to eat a lot of seeds, fruits, and vegetation. For owners of these parrots, a variety of commercial nectar mixes are available, and a nectar dish ought to take the place of pellets or seeds as a lory or lorikeet’s primary diet. To stop bacterial growth, the nectar will need to be replaced a few times a day.

In their natural habitat, smaller species’ diets (such as that of the Scaly-breasted Lorikeet) will contain a greater proportion of nectar than those of larger species. Additionally, lorries and lorikeets consume the sugary excretions left by certain insect species on vegetation. The main ingredients of these excretions and the nectar they consume are water, simple sugars, and a trace quantity of amino acids. Lories are unable to digest raffinose, one of the sugars. Raffinose, however, appears to encourage the development of advantageous bacteria in the birds’ digestive systems. These beneficial bacteria can inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. Beans, whole grains, and mustard-family vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, or cabbage contain raffinose.

Pollen is also consumed by wild lories and lorikeets. Adults can only digest four of them, so they don’t digest it very well. 5-6. 6% of pollen, whereas nestlings can ingest up to 206 percent of it In general, lorries have lower protein requirements than other parrot species. Additionally, if they are fed an extremely high-quality and easily digestible protein source (such as egg whites), rainbow lorries can thrive on a diet containing as little as 3% protein. Wild lories will also eat fruits, including figs, if available. They eat very few seeds.

Drawing from an analysis of wild lory diet, Debra McDonald, Ph. D (2003) suggests that their diet consist of commercial lory nectar, very few (if any) seeds, very little high-iron food, lots of provitamin A-containing fruit (such as cantaloupe, mangos, or apricots), and tiny portions of raffinose-containing foods. She also suggests adding pollen, but many lory nectar mixes already include it, as I noticed. Even though their nectar mix is water-based, lories that are given water will drink and bathe in it, so don’t forget to provide water as well! Try offering edible, unsprayed flowers as an enrichment item. Before they rip them apart, a lot of lories will consume the pollen from flowers like pansies, marigolds, roses, or hibiscus.

2. African Grey Parrots

Although all parrots require calcium, African Grey Parrots appear to be more susceptible to hypocalcaemia than other bird species. Symptoms include weakness and seizures. According to a recent study, birds exposed to UVB light had higher blood calcium levels than birds not exposed to UVB light, indicating that African Grey Parrots require UVB light exposure for optimal calcium metabolism (Stanford, 2006). Reptile-specific lights emit the UVB rays that African Grey Parrots require. But make sure this is the case by carefully reading the box. For best results, the lights should be placed a few feet away from the parrot and should only be on the birds for about an hour each day. UVB rays are also present in natural sunlight, but glass blocks them out. A bird’s health will also benefit from being left outside in a cage under supervision because it will be exposed to UVB rays.

Vitamin D

Birds also need vitamin D to metabolize calcium properly. Birds can synthesis vitamin D3 from plant-based lipids when exposed to sunlight. However, vitamin D3 is also available in pellets. If a veterinarian advises you to supplement a parrot’s diet with extra vitamin D, do not do so. Excess vitamin D can cause kidney problems and gout. Generally speaking, if your parrot is eating pellets and nutritious, fresh food, there’s no need to supplement his diet with vitamins.


When fed as a base diet, pellets are a very practical and healthful addition to a parrot’s diet, and feeding them reduces the risk of malnutrition. But adding nutritious, unprocessed foods to his diet will make his life better and give him lots of useful phytonutrients. The best foods to add to a pelleted diet are beans, nuts, seeds, vegetables, fruits (especially berries and those high in carotenoids), whole grains, and sprouts.


Bavelaar, F. J. , and Beynen, A. C. 2004. Atherosclerosis in parrots: A review. Veterinary Quarterly. 26: 50-60.

Ding, M. , Feng, R. T. , Wang, S. Y. , Bowman, L. , Lu, Y. J. , Qian, Y. , Castranova, V. , Jiang, B. H. , and Shi, X. L. 2006. A Natural Blackberry Product Called Cyanidin-3-glucoside Shows Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic Action Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281: 17359-17368.

Doneley, B. 2003. The Galah. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. 12: 185-194.

McDonald, D. 2003. Feeding Ecology and Nutrition of Australian Lorikeets. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. 12: 195-204.

Neto, C. 2007. Evidence that cranberries and blueberries can prevent cancer and vascular diseases Molecular Nutrition and Food Resesarch. 51: 652-664.

Stahl, S. , and Kronfeld, D. 1998. Veterinary Nutrition of Large Psittacines. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. 7: 128-134.

Stanford, M. 2006. Effects of UVB radiation on calcium metabolism in psittacine birds. Veterinary Record 159: 236-241.

Wu, X. , Beecher, G. R. , Holden, J. M. , Haytowitz, D. B. , Gebhardt, S. E. , and Prior, R. L. 2004. Common American foods’ hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52: 4026-4037.

Žit?anová, I. , Ranostajová, S. , Sobotová, H. , Demelová, D. , Pechá?, I. , and ?ura?ková, Z. 2006. Antioxidative activity of selected fruits and vegetables. Biologia. 61: 279-284.

Other Resources

-This is an interesting website to play with. You can enter almost any kind of food and get nutritional information about it. Additionally, you can search for a particular nutrient to find the foods that are highest in that nutrient.



Can you feed wheat to wild birds?

Cheap Seeds Buying less expensive seed may seem like an economical way to feed birds. But, the cheap filler seeds in economy mixes, such as wheat, cracked corn, milo, and oats, are not birds’ favorite foods. These grains have less overall nutrition and only appeal to a limited number of bird species.

What grains are safe for birds?

All types of grains: This includes beans, lentils, corn, wheat, rice, and any other kind of grains in their natural state. Often, these grains sit in the pantry for years and may not be suitable for human consumption. If dry and well preserved, grains are an ideal kitchen food that can be offered to backyard birds.

Can wild birds eat buckwheat?

The plant makes a good cover crop for idle land, and the flowers are a favorite among beekeepers. The seeds are a high quality food for doves, wild turkey, quail, pheasants, grouse, and waterfowl.

Can birds digest grains?

Besides, like people, birds can digest things, too. Long before any uncooked rice consumed by a bird could expand and harm the animal, it would have already been ground up in the bird’s crop and well into the process of being broken down into nutrients and waste by the acids and enzymes in its digestive tract.